Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Insulation Procedure

1.0 Scope
1.1 This procedure covers the installation of insulation on piping, vessels, and equipment operating in hot service or cold service. Underground piping is not covered by this procedure.

2.0 Codes and Standards
2.1 Contract documents
2.2 General specification provided by Owner.
PDOC-SP-MEC-014 - Specification for Insulation
ASME C533 Calcium Silicate Block and Pipe Thermal Insulation
ASME C547 Mineral Fibre Performed Pipe Insulation
ASME C612 Mineral Fibre Block and Board Thermal Insulation
Occupational Health and Safety Act

3.0 Material Control
3.1 All the material shall be verified as per material certification. Tag and nameplate being as per data sheet.
3.2 Items quantity and size of the material shall be as per P.O. and drawings.
3.3 All materials supplied shall be new and undamaged.
3.4 All insulation material shall be properly stored and protected from moisture in accordance with CONTRACTORS procedure PDOC-587B-PR-GEN-001 (Material, Handling Delivery And Storage Procedure) for material's loading, unloading, storage and distribution.
3.5 Use of materials other than those specified requires OWNER'S approval.
3.6 Insulation materials containing asbestos or polyurethane shall not be used.

4.0 Insulation Preparation
4.1 Check the materials as 3.1~3.5 to ensure that the type of the material and thickness are in accordance with relevant specification and drawings.
4.2 Insulation supervisor shall receive a copy of the pipe test acceptance to confirm that all the testing such as hydrostatic, X-ray , etc. have been completed and released on all piping and equipment involved
4.3 All surfaces to be insulated shall be cleaned and primed, and remained dry before insulation to be applied.
4.4 Inspect weather condition. Insulation shall not be installed during weather which might cause the pipe or insulation to become wet when the surfaces are less than 5ºC above dew point. Insulation to be installed over an extended period must be protected to ensure it remains dry until it has been properly sealed.
4.5 Heating tracing shall be installed, tested and tagged in accordance with relevant specification and drawings before insulation.
4.6 Insulation support installation shall be finished as required before insulation
4.7 Make sure that Insulation will not cover the face of gauge glasses, equipment name or data plates or tags, nor be applied so as to interfere with dynamic parts of instruments or equipment.

5.0 Piping Insulation
5.1 Insulation Construction shall be performed after all the insulation preparation have been finished and released.
5.2 Factory fabricated sectional pipe insulation shall be applied in staggered joint construction and secured with wire loops or bands on 225 mm centers. On multiple layer construction, all joints shall be lapped one-half of each section between layers. Each layer shall be secured separately. All joints shall be securely butted and all cracks, joints, etc. shall be filled with insulating sealant as appropriate.
5.3 Mastic sealer shall be used around pipe supports where the insulation is punctured by the support.
5.4 Heat traced lines shall be insulated to completely cover both line and tracing.
5.5 Where insulation is required on the outside of piping, vessels or equipment that extends through an exterior building wall or roof, the insulation shall not stop at the exterior of the building but shall be extended for 300 mm inside the building.
5.6 Any cracks or openings that occur in the insulation or weather-proofing are to be filled in with additional insulation or weather-proofing to provide a smooth sealed surface
5.7 At all flanges, unions, and pipe terminations, the pipe insulation shall be bevelled at a 45°angle to facilitate remove of flange bolts and union collars without damage to the main pipe insulation and metal jacketing. A screwed and sealed metal cover shall be installed.
5.8 All openings in metal jacketing for nipples, pipe supports, etc. are to be neatly cut to provide a tight fit and shall be thoroughly sealed and weather-proofed to prevent moisture from penetrating under the jacket. Openings shall be fitted with a metal collar or suitable flashing embedded in sealant and screwed firmly on place.
5.9 Insulation shall be covered with metal jacketing lapped a minimum of 50 mm on all seams and secured with screws and bands, locating one band at each lap joint and spaced a maximum of 450 mm on centre. Vertical jacketing shall be supported with “S” clips.
5.10 All insulation shall be clad with metal jacketing. Jacketing shall be installed so as to shed water and protect against wind and blowing rain.

6.0 Insulation on Fittings, Flanges and Valves
6.1 Fittings shall be insulated with standard factory formed insulation and secured with wire loops or bands, minimum two per section. All joints shall be filled with insulating sealant as appropriate. Insulation shall be covered with pre-formed metal jacketing.
6.2 Insulation and jacketing on valves, flanges and unions shall be installed so as to be removable without damage to the main pipe insulation.
6.3 Unless the piping is heat/electrical traced, valves, flanges and unions shall not normally be insulated unless specified by OWNER. All other fittings are to be insulated.

7.0 Insulation On Vessels and Equipment
Make sure that all the insulation preparation have been finished and released.
7.1 Vessels Insulation
7.1.1 Vessels shells shall be insulated with factory fabricated insulation curved or grooved to fit the vessel shell contour. If additional layers are required, insulation shall be installed with staggered joints.
7.1.2 Each layer shall be secured with bands; machine stretched, and fastened on 300 mm centres.
7.1.3 Insulation shall be clad with metal jacketing lapped a minimum 75 mm on all seams. Jacketing shall be installed so as to shed water and protect against wind and blowing rain.
7.1.4 All openings in metal jacketing for man-ways nozzles, nipples, pipe supports, etc. are to be neatly cut to provide a tight fit and shall be thoroughly sealed and weather-proofed to prevent moisture from penetrating under the jacket. Openings shall be fitted with a metal collar or suitable flashing embedded in sealant and firmly screwed place.
7.1.5 Jacketing shall be secured with metal screws on 150 mm centres on longitudinal seams and with bands, located at lap and spaced on a maximum of 450 mm on centre.
7.1.6 Vessel heads shall be insulated in the same manner as the shell. Insulation shall be covered with metal jacketing in a pie shaped or segmented arrangement.
7.1.7 Corrugated jacketing on vertical vessels shall be installed using the “S” clip method and lapped a minimum of two (2) corrugations on vertical seams.
7.1.8 A band shall be placed adjacent to heads of horizontal vessels and at the top sheet on vertical vessels to secure flashing between head and shell jackets.
7.1.9 Where insulation is required on the outside of piping, vessels or equipment that extends through an exterior building wall or roof, the insulation shall not stop at the exterior of the building but shall be extended for 300 mm inside the building.
7.1.10 Insulation and jacketing on exchanger flanges and heads shall be installed so as to be removable without damage to the main shell insulation.
7.2 Equipment
7.2.1 For equipment of irregular shape, insulation shall be of the same type and thickness as specified for vessels. Insulation and metal jacketing shall be installed so as to be removable.
7.2.2 Insulation cement, where required shall be applied in layers 20 to 25 mm thick. Every layer shall be reinforced with steel mesh. The outer surface of the insulation cement shall be finished with a smooth layer of finish cement.

8.0 The Detailed Insulation System
The detailed insulation system for hot service, cold service and personal protection and detailed material status shall conform to the MR & Manual that shall be reviewed and approved by OWNER.

9.0 Quality Record And Inspection Report
9.1 All quality records and report shall be accepted by CONTRACTOR. QC engineer and the OWNER’s representative.
9.2 All quality inspection records shall be coincident with the insulation construction. The recorded information shall be real and reliable.

10.0 Revision Note
This procedure shall be revised if it is found to be inadequate for purposed work upon completion of engineering/new construction practice / new site information or as requested by OWNER.

Monday, October 4, 2010

Blasting and Painting Procedure

1.0 Scope
1.1 This construction procedure covers the control of materials and the procedure to be followed in the course of surface preparation, painting/coating application, inspection and safety requirements for aboveground piping for Field Surface Facilities Project of Melut Basin Oil Development Project, Sudan. Detailed specifications and/or equipment shop drawings shall be used in conjunction with this procedure.

2.0 Reference Documents
2.1 Owner’s specification
PDOC-SP-MEC-013 Specification for External Painting & Protective Coatings
PDOC-SP-MEC-032 Specifications for Internal Coating, Tanks, Vessels, Piping
PDOC-SP-CIV-019 Specification for External Painting and Protective Coating For Structural Steel
PDOC-SP-PPL-004 Specification for Fusion Bond External Epoxy Coating for Steel Pipe
2.2 SSPC Steel Structure Painting Council Standard,
SSPC-SP1 Solvent Cleaning
SSPC-SP2 Hand tool Cleaning
SSPC-SP3 Power Tool Cleaning
SSPC-SP5 White Metal Blast Cleaning
SSPC-SP7 Brush Off Blast Cleaning
SSPC-SP10 Near White Blast Cleaning
SSPC-PA1 Shop, Field, and Maintenance Painting
SSPC-PA Guide 3 A Guide to Safety in Paint Application
SSPC-PA2 Measurement of Dry Paint Thickness with Magnetic Gauges

3.0 Material Control
3.1 All materials send to the job site should be inspected in accordance with the procedure for material’s loading, unloading, storage and distribution. In addition, coating material shelf life shall be checked for expiry date.
3.2 All coating materials shall be delivered to the job site in original unopened containers with labels intact.
3.3 Each container of paint shall be clearly marked or labeled to show paint identification, date of manufacture, batch number, analysis of contents, identification of all toxic substances, and special instructions
3.4 Coating material shall be stored in a location that is protected from the elements, well ventilated and free from excessive heat, open flame, or other sources of ignition in accordance with the manufacturer recommendation and CONTRACTORS procedure.
3.5 Type of blasting abrasive shall be approved by OWNER.
3.6. Sand blasting abrasive cleaning shall be used by the CONTRACTORS which by any means must abide to the OWNERS Specifications.
3.7 Sandblast sand shall be fresh water washed, controlled particle size, high silica content sand, with sharp angular surfaces and no soft particles to ensure fast, positive cleaning action with a minimum of dusting when used to blast clean metal surfaces. Under no circumstances shall it contain clay particles or any other extraneous matter.

4.0 Inspection Equipment
4.1 The following inspection equipment shall be kept available during blasting and painting operations:
a) A temperature gauge and a hygrometer
b) Surface profile gauge
c) Wet film thickness gauge
d) Dry film thickness gauge (for DFT measuring25 µm to 5 mm)
e) Holiday detector
NOTE: Surface profile Gauge & Dry film Thickness must be able to gauge flat and round surfaces.

5.0 Blasting And Coating Equipment
5.1 The type of surface preparation by power tools or painting blasting and coating equipment shall be as per specification, coating material manufacturer’s recommendation and as approved by OWNER including as follows:
5.1.1 Power tool cleaning equipment
5.1.2 Dry abrasive blasting equipment
5.1.3 Air spray equipment
5.1.4 Airless spray equipment ( if necessary )
5.1.5 Brushes
5.1.6 High density battery powered light for internal coating
5.1.7 Ventilation equipment
5.2 All the equipment shall be ready and checked as being in good within working order prior to and during blasting and coating operations and shall be kept in a sufficiently clean condition to avoid surface and/or coating contamination.

6.0 General
6.1 Work shall be done by qualified personnel in a neat and workmanlike manner conforming to all applicable OWNER specification. CONTRACTORS to carry out any type of surface preparation and painting or coating qualification prior proceeding with actual work.
6.2 All coating shall be done in accordance with manufacture’s recommendations. Where specifications contained herein conflict with manufacturer’s recommendations the conflict shall be referred to OWNER for written clarification prior to the commencement of work.
6.3 The numbers of coating and the thickness of coating should be in accordance with approved IFC drawing or Owner’s specification listed in chapter 2.

7.0 Atmospheric Conditions
7.1 The applicator shall measure the ambient conditions at regular intervals prior to and during of any type of power tooling or blasting painting/coating, and keep records of prevailing temperature, humidity and dew point.
7.2 No surface preparation or application of material may take place when steel surface temperatures are less than 3c above the dew point or above 50c at the time of coating.

8.0 Surface Preparation
Surface preparation shall be in accordance with paint manufacturer’s instruction and project specification, whether blast cleaning, power tool, hand tool or solvent cleaning.
8.1 General
8.1.1 Surface preparation shall be done in accordance with Steel Structures Painting Council surface preparation specifications defined in Steel Structures Painting Manual Volume 2.
8.1.2 The blast cleaning abrasive (sand) shall be determined by the test methods in SSPC-AB 1 (Mineral and Slag Abrasives) specification in order to comply with the SSPC-10 standard. Only abrasive approved by the OWNER will be acceptable for use as a blast medium.
8.1.3 The abrasive shall be dry and free from oil, grease, dust and other impurities. Re-usable abrasive shall be clean and reasonably sharp, contain no rust or noticeably worn abrasives.
8.1.4 Alternative surface preparation methods may be approved when dry blast cleaning is unsafe or impractical.
8.1.5 Blast cleaning shall not be permitted where adjacent areas or equipment are not sufficiently protected from contamination by abrasive dust or debris.
8.1.6 Blast cleaning shall not be permitted in areas close to painting operation to prevent contamination of wet paint film by dust and grit
8.1.7 All organic substance such as oil, grease, and other contaminants shall be removed in accordance with per specification prior to blasting operations.
8.1.8 All rough welds, burrs and sharp surface projections shall be ground smooth and all weld spatter shall be removed prior to blasting operations.
8.1.9 The compressed air supply used for surface preparation must be of sufficient pressure and volume to prepare the surface to the degree specified and shall be free of oil and water.
8.1.10 During blasting, the rise face flanges must be protected at all time. This should be done by covering the rise surface with a round plate that covers exactly the rise surface diameter.
8.2 Near-white Metal Blast Cleaning
8.2.1 Near- white metal blast cleaning shall be in accordance with SSPC-SP10 “Near white metal blast cleaning” (ISO 8501-1 Sa2.5).
8.2.2 SSPC-SP10 “Near white metal blast cleaning” shall be used for the surface preparation of external and internal coating for atmospheric protection of above ground steel structures, tanks vessels, piping systems, and pipelines.
8.3 Power-tool Cleaning
Power-tool cleaning shall be to a visual standard in accordance with ISO 8501-1 St3. Power-tool cleaning shall be done using abrasive or wire-type power discs. Power-tool cleaning shall extend a minimum of 25mm distance into adjoining coated surfaces.
8.4 Hand-tool Cleaning
Hand-tool cleaning is the least effective of the surface preparation methods, but it may be used for touch-up/repair maintenance with certain surface-tolerance coating systems. Hand-tool cleaning shall be a visual standard in accordance with ISO 8501-1 St 2. Cleaning shall be done with brushes, scrapers, sanders or other hand impact tools.
8.5 Solvent Cleaning
Solvent cleaning shall be done in accordance with SSPC-SP1 “Solvent Cleaning’ on the surface examined for the presence of oil or grease.

9.0 Mixing and Thinning
9.1 Paint shall be mixed in accordance with manufacturer’s instruction and as per specification
9.2 Mixing method shall be applied in accordance with the paint manufacturer recommendation.
9.3 All pigmented paint shall be strained after mixing except where application equipment is provided with strainers. Strainers shall be of a type to remove only skins and undesirable matter but not to remove the pigment.
9.4 Where a skin has formed in the container, the skin shall be cut loose from the sides of the container, removed and discarded. If the volume of such skin is more than 2% of the remaining paint, the paint shall not be used.
9.5 Mixing in open containers shall be done in a well ventilated area away from sparks or flames.
9.6 Paint shall not remain in spray pots, painter buckets, etc., overnight, but shall be stored in a covered container and re-mixed before use.

10.0 Painting/Coating Application
10.1 General
10.1.1 Painting/coating shall be applied in accordance with the paint manufacturer’s instructions and this procedure. Whether air spray, airless spray or brush.
10.1.2 Field painting on steel surfaces. Surface preparation shall be finished in accordance with this procedure Section 8.0 before application of primer.
10.1.3 Field painting on shop coating. Any previously applied shop coating must be dry and free of dirt, oil, and other contaminants.
10.1.4 Shop coated steel members shall preferably be field painted after erection of such members is completed. Steel members may be field painted on the ground before erection, provided such painting is touched-up where damaged, with the same number of coats and types of paints after erection. The top coat shall be applied after erection.
10.1.5 When the type of paint for field coating is not specified, it shall be approved and verified whether the paint to be used is compatible with the shop applied coat(s).
10.1.6 Surfaces (other than contact surfaces) of fabricated assemblies which are accessible before erection but which will not be accessible after erection shall receive all field coats of paint before erection.
10.1.7 All field welds and all areas within four inches of welds shall be cleaned before painting, using surface preparation methods at least as effective as those specified for the structure itself; all welds shall either be blast cleaned, or thoroughly power brushed.
10.2 Spray Application
10.2. 1 All spray application of paint whether air, or airless spray, shall be in accordance with the following:
10.2. 2 The equipment used shall be suitable for the intended purpose, shall be capable of properly atomizing the paint to applied, and shall be equipped with suitable pressure regulators and gauges. The equipment shall be maintained in proper working condition at all times.
10.2. 3 Paint ingredients shall be kept uniformly mixed in the spray pots or containers during paint application either by continuous mechanical agitation or by intermittent agitation as frequently as is required.
10.2. 4 Paint shall be applied in a uniform layer with a 50% overlap at the edges of the spray pattern, and 20 to 25 cm away from the surface.
10.2. 5 Brush or daubers shall be painted for cracks, crevices, blind areas of all rivets and bolts, and all other inaccessible areas.
10.2. 6 Paint manufacturer’s instructions regarding pot life, drying/curing intervals between successive coats and final curing periods before assembly or transport, shall be followed.
10.2. 7 Each layer of paint shall be allowed to dry for a period of time within the limits prescribed by the paint manufacturer, before the next layer is applied.
10.2. 8 No coating shall be applied to edges prepared for field welds or within 50mm of these edges, except for a prefabrication or welding (shop) primer which shall be limited to a maximum 25 microns.
10.3 Airless Spray Application
10.3. 1 Airless or high pressure spray application of paint shall be in accordance with all of the provision of Section 10.2.1 And in addition shall comply with following:
10.3. 2 The air pressure to the paint pump shall be adjusted so that the paint pressure to the gun is proper for optimum spraying effectiveness in accordance with paint manufacture’s recommendation.
10.3. 3 The trigger of the gun should be pulled fully open during all spraying to insure proper application of paint.
10.3. 4 Airless paint spray equipment shall always be provided with an electric ground wire in the high pressure line between the gun and the pumping equipment. Further, the pumping equipment shall be suitably grounded to avoid the build-up of any electrostatic charge on the gun. The manufacturer's instruction should to be followed regarding the proper use of the equipment.
10.4 Brush Application
10.4. 1 Brush application shall be done in areas which cannot be properly sprayed and for touch up maintenance where spray application is not practical.
10.4. 2 Brush shall be of a type and size which permits proper application of paint. Round or oval brushes are most suitable for irregular surfaces such as bolts, weld, pitted steel, etc. Wide flat brushes shall be used for large flat areas.
10.4. 3 Paint shall be worked into all corners and crevices.
10.4. 4 Rugs and sags or other defects will not be permitted

10.5 Critical Internal Coating
10.5. 1 For critical internal coating of tanks /and vessels, all crew supervisors, abrasive blasters and paint coating applicators shall be fully conversant with all aspects of the blasting and coating operations. All equipment i.e. lights, air extractor’s to conform to safety requirements.
10.5. 2 The method of application used shall be governed by the coating manufacturer’s recommendation for the particular coating being applied. Method of application shall also be considered by the immediate vicinity where work will be carried out.
10.5. 3 Warning notes shall be clearly paint specified on the external surface of all internally coated vessels: “INTERNALLY COATED – DO NOT WELD – HANDLE WITH CARE”.
10.6 Detailed Painting System
10.6.1 The detailed painting system shall conform to the Owner approved IFC drawings and Painting Manual which CONTRACTORS should submitted prior proceeding the works.
10.7 Check list Details
10.7.1 For the check list details refer to Blasting Painting/coating Inspection and Test Plan.

11.0 Drying/Curing
11.1 All drying and re-coat times shall be that specified by manufacturer.
11.2 Curing shall conform to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Force curing shall only be done in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.
11.3 Paint shall be protected from rain, condensation, contamination until dry to fullest extent practical.
11.4 No paint shall be subjected to immersion before it is thoroughly dried or cured.

12.0 Inspection and Testing
12.1 General
It shall be the responsibility of contractor to conduct the test and inspection as follows in accordance with paint manufacturer’s application instruction and project specification. OWNER shall monitor all tests performed by Contractor.
The following tests shall be performed at start-up and at specified intervals.
12.2 Environment Check
12.2.1 Before commencing work on surface preparation and coating, the atmospheric temperature and relative humidity shall be measured in order to determine the dew point. Relative humidity readings shall be measured a maximum interval of 2-hour.
12.2.2 Following determination of the dew point, the steel surface temperature shall be measured at regular 2-hour intervals. The steel surface temperature shall be 3ºC or more above the dew point during surface preparation as well as during coating.
12.3 Visual finished coating
12.3.1 The finished coating surfaces shall be of uniform color and free from pinholes, peeling, sags, and runs. etc.
12.4 Film Thickness Measurement
12.4.1 The dry film thickness of individual coats and of the total coating system shall be checked at 5 random locations over areas representative of the work in progress. There shall be a check of at least one area on each horizontal, vertical and curved surface. For internal coating of tanks and vessels, a minimum of 10 random areas shall be checked.
12.4.2 With the exception of areas such as welds, crevices, etc. the specified minimum dry film thickness shall not be exceeded by more than 50%.
12.4.3 Dry film thickness shall be measured with a coating thickness gauge suitable for given type of coating thickness range and substrate material (magnetic or nonmagnetic).
12.4.4 CONTRACTORS shall insure that all the inspection, measuring and test equipment has a valid calibration certificates.

13.0 Repair Of Damaged Areas
13.1 Damaged painting and coating, and/or coating which does not pass the holiday detection test shall be repaired and retested to the satisfaction of OWNER
13.2 The coating materials used for repair and maintenance shall be the same as the original materials
13.3 The surface preparation method for repair will depend upon the size of areas to be coated and the repair coating materials required.
13.4 The area of the coating damage or holiday, along with the adjacent area of coating for a minimum of 25 mm on all sides shall be thoroughly prepared /abraded.
13.5 The painting repair method shall be as per paint manufacture’s specifications.
13.6 Repair coating shall be applied so that the final coat overlaps the surrounding sound coating for a minimum 25 mm.

14.0 Safety
14.1 Safety in blasting and painting operations are paramount. Both operators and supervisors must be fully conversant with all safety requirements associated with blasting and cleaning, scaffolding and access platforms, ventilation in enclosed areas, as per project safety manual.
14.2 All spraying equipment shall be earthed, all high lines checked daily, operators shall wear all approved safety equipment at all times when spraying operations are in progress, and warning signs erected when blasting work is in progress.
14.3 Protection of working area environment please refer to HSE plan.
15.0 Quality Record and Inspection Report
15.1 Daily reports shall be assured on all painting activities and recorded on blasting / painting inspection reports. These records shall be maintained and monitored by QC engineer who together with OWNER shall sign on all inspection reports which are included in the inspection and test procedures.

16.0 Revision Note
16.1 This procedure shall be revised if it is found to be inadequate for purposed work upon completion of engineering/new construction practice/new site information or as requested by OWNER.

Sunday, October 3, 2010

Above Ground Piping Procedure

1. Scope
1.1 This procedure shall be applied for the pre-fabrication, installation, examination, pressure testing and cleaning of above ground piping, including OGM piping and Well Head piping for FSF projects.

2. Reference Documents
a) Contract documents
b) Design documents
c) OWNER’s specification:
1) PDOC-SP-PIP-002, Specification for Piping Design and Layout
2) PDOC-SP-PIP-003, Specification for Pressure Testing of Piping Systems
3) PDOC-SP-PIP-004, Specification for Piping fabrication
4) PDOC-SP-PIP-005, Specification for Piping Welding
5) PDOC-SP-PIP-011, Specification for Piping Material
d) ASME B31.3, Process Piping
f) ASME B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons
g) API 1104, Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities
h) PFIES-5, Cleaning of Fabricated piping
i) In case where more than one code or standard apply to the same condition, the most stringent shall be followed during construction. In the event of a conflict between them, the OWNER shall be consulted and a ruling in writing shall be obtained before any work is started.

3. Pipe Pre-fabrication
3.1 General
3.1.1 The approved project specification shall be used.
3.1.2 Competent welders who have passed the examination as per approved procedures Welding Procedures (PDOC-587B-PR--006) and obtained the certificates or permits shall do piping fabrication & installation welding.
3.1.3 All materials and pipe fittings shall be handled, stored and delivered according to applied procedure.
3.1.4 Piping shall be blasted and painted/coated according to applied procedure.
3.1.5 Prefabrication shall be done according to the approved isometric drawings; the prefabrication limit shall be marked on the isometric drawings by construction technician.
3.1.6 Piping welding shall be in accordance with approved welding procedure specifications.
3.1.7 The material requisition for pipe and fittings shall be submitted three (3) days earlier by construction crew, after the material requisition verified by related technician, materials shall be delivered to the personnel who is appointed by construction crew and OWNER, and stored in good condition by classification. Before prefabrication and line up, materials and fittings shall be carefully checked in order to identify quality, thickness, type and specification.
3.1.8 Any deformed pipe fittings or damaged face of flange and valve shall be replaced and recorded; all unqualified materials shall be clearly marked to avoid being misused for next time.
3.2 Pipe cutting
3.2.1 Pipe can be cut by machine or Oxy-acetylene flame, for the carbon steel pipe smaller than 2” can be cut by machine, stainless steel pipes cannot be cut by flame welding. The stainless steel pipe which is smaller than 2” can be cut by machine, larger than 2” stainless steel pipe can be cut by machine or plasma cutting .All scales and other foreign material on the surface shall be removed after cutting, galvanized pipe shall be cut by cutting machine.
3.2.2 Considering prefabricated materials size may be reduced for cutting, welding, and grinding, pipe shall be more than 1-2mm when it is prepared to be prefabricated, pipe shall be more than 100mm for surplus at erecting fixed spots.
3.2.3 Marking shall be transferred on each section cut material and clearly marked the Heat No., Thickness, material grade, all cut material which have not been marked or identified shall not be used.
3.2.4 Pipe cut length less than 1.5 times the outside diameter shall not be used.
3.3 Beveling of the edge
3.3.1 Bevel shall be processed by machine or Oxy-acetylene flame, scales shall be removed by grinder, bevel angle shall meet welding requirement. The water, oil or other foreign materials shall be removed by wire brush or cotton waste before welding, for stainless steel material; it shall be cleaned by stainless wire brush.
3.3.2 The appearance of bevel shall be checked after beveling, and free from slag, crack or other defects. After bevel is checked, welding shall be done immediately and document shall be recorded.
3.4 Pipe fit-up
3.4.1 For pipe fit-up, the clearance and angle between bevels shall be as per specification. For pipe of the same nominal wall thickness, the maximum offset or misalignment of the abutting pipe ends shall not exceed one-sixteenth (1/16) inch. When the unequal wall thickness to be joined, the external offset shall not exceed one-eighth (1/8) inch and internal offset shall not exceed three thirty-second (3/32) inch, if these values are exceeded, the excess thickness of the heavier end shall be machined or ground back from the bevel on a one-to-four (1 to 4) taper.
3.4.2 Welding surface and geometric size shall comply with the requirement in the ASME B31.3.
3.5 Pipe welding
3.5.1 Welding shall be in accordance with the welding procedure specifications.
3.5.2 Welding consumable requisition and storage shall comply with welding material control procedure.
3.5.3 After the welds completed, the surface of welds shall be cleaned and finished to remove all slag, scale etc. welder shall mark his embossed stamp number at spot 50mm far from welding seam, stainless steel pipe shall be marked by painting, welder number shall be marked at the correspondent position on the isometric drawings and welding records shall be made at the same time.

3.5.4 When the nipples have been prefabricated, records shall be made, the temporary supports are needed during handling the prefabricated nipples to prevent damage to paint or deformation of nipples. Hand over formalities shall be arranged, registered when the nipples are transported from the mill (shop), the isometric drawing and all kind of construction records shall be provided when they are handed over. The prefabricating status and welder number shall be marked on the isometric drawing.
3.5.5 Non-destructive test shall be in accordance with OWNER’s specified codes and codes & standards.
3.6 Pipe supports prefabrication
3.6.1 The materials used for supports shall conform to the code requirement, the material’s types, specifications, processed size, and welding shall be in accordance with drawings.
3.6.2 Flame welding can not be used for making holes on the pipe supports, the support welding surfaces shall be checked to ensure there are no crack or other defects.
3.6.3 The supports shall be blast cleaned and painted the material quality and type; size shall be clearly marked and stacked in a good condition by classification.
3.7 Thread processing
3.7.1 All pipe threads shall be fabricated at shop, the selected pipe materials used for thread shall be in accordance with drawing, the threads and seal faces shall be protected in a good manner.

4. Piping Installation
4.1 Valve examination prior to valve installation
4.1.1 Should check the valve’s specification, type, and identification tag and factory qualification certificate in accordance with the engineering drawings.
4.2 Relief valve calibrating
4.2.1 Prior to installing the relief valves, if they did not have the vendor’s calibrate certificate, they shall be calibrated as per PI&D drawings.
4.3 After the following have been completed the piping can be installed.
4.3.1 All civil work related with pipe have been checked and accepted and can meet installation requirement.
4.3.2 All equipment connected with pipe have been aligned, secured and accepted.
4.3.3 All valves and fittings have been checked and accepted. Pipe prefabrication has been handed over.
4.4 No iron or steel tools can be used for knocking the stainless steel pipe.
4.5 During installation asbestos blind shall seal flanges, which are connected with vessels, equipment or pump. The fixed welding joint of pipe that is connected with the dynamic equipment shall be far from the equipment.
4.6 Valve installation
4.6.1 Valve shall be installed as per requirement in PDOC-SP-PIP-012.
4.6.2 Prior to installation, all valves shall have sufficient clearance to facilitate removal of the bonnets, plugs and internals, the type number and tag shall be verified as per drawings, installation direction shall be identified according to medium flowing direction. Flange seal face shall be checked to ensure no damage to them, the operative mechanism and driving units should be regulated as necessary, butt welding valves had better open during welding.
4.6.3 Care shall be taken to avoid damage to the instruments when installing adjustable valves.
4.7 Supports and brackets installation
4.7.1 Supports, brackets, hangers shall be secured and adjusted, guiding and sliding supports shall be evenly and securely installed.
4.7.2 When the hangers and supports are welded with piping, the welding seams shall be carefully inspected.
4.7.3 After the pipe has been installed, the location and patterns of the supports or brackets shall be checked one by one as per drawings.
4.8 The position of the pipe fittings which are removed for testing and purging and both inlet & outlet of pump or other equipment shall be mounted with temporary gaskets. Formal gaskets shall be used in other location.

5. Pressure Test
5.1 Pressure test shall be carried out according to ASME B31.3 (Process Piping) Code and OWNER specification for pressure testing of piping systems (PDOC-SP-PIP-003).
5.2 Prior to testing piping system, the following items shall be completed:
5.2.1 Construction for piping system has been completed as per drawing.
5.2.2 Non-destructive tests have been completed and accepted.
5.2.3 All buried pipe’s coordinates, elevation, grade, pipe basis and padding have been verified and accepted, all temporary reinforcement measures have been verified to ensure that they are tightly secured.
5.2.4 All QC forms and hydro test package shall be documented according to QUALITY PLAN & PROCEDURE and accepted by QC department and other related divisions.
5.2.5 Test gauges have been calibrated, the accuracy shall be no less than 1.5 grades and graduation value shall be 1.5-2.0 times of the maximum pressure, at least two gauges are needed in one system, and pressure recorder which have indicating needle for pressure testing and temperature record.
5.2.6 The location of gauge and blind board shall be marked in the test system flow diagram.
5.2.7 The test application shall be verified, approved and accepted by related department.
5.2 All the equipment, instruments and pipe fittings which are not included in the test system shall be segregated or removed before testing; the blinding location shall be clearly marked and recorded.
5.3 Check the process flow and open the relative valves before pressure-test. In case flow direction of testing medium is reversed to flow direction of retaining valve, the valve’s core that has been taken out shall be labeled, and records made, and mounted after testing and cleaning.
5.4 Testing Medium
5.4.1 The liquid piping shall be hydro-tested. The testing medium shall be water unless there is the possibility of damage due to freezing or to adverse effects of water on the piping or the process. In that case another suitable nontoxic liquid may be used. If the liquid is flammable, its flash point shall be at least 49°C (120°F), and consideration shall be given to the test environment; the gas line shall be tested use by air or according design document.
5.5 Test pressure
5.5.1 Test pressure shall be confirmed as per the Line List in design drawings.
5.5.2 When it is not specified in drawings:
Hydrostatic test pressure shall be no less than 1.5 times of design pressure, and air test pressure shall be 1.1 times of the design pressure, if the design temperature is higher than test temperature, the minimum testing pressure of the pipe shall conform to the requirement of ASME.B 31.3
5.6 Testing procedure
5.6.1 Testing water shall flow into the piping system from the lowest drain, all air in the system must be purged out from the highest vent, and one gauge must be placed at the highest position.
5.6.2 Hydrostatic test pressure shall slowly rise. After the pressure reaches the test pressure, it shall be held for one hour, check the piping thoroughly, include but no limited to the welding seam, valve, flange. The test can be accepted if there are no leaks and pressure-drops after check of all piping system. All leaks shall be repaired if they are found. Prior to repair, the pressure in the piping shall be discharged from system; repair carrying pressure is not permitted.
5.6.3 Safety measures during testing shall strictly comply with the applicable safety codes and standards.
5.6.4 Testing shall be approved by the OWNER, records shall be completed after testing, and the records will compose part of the Q.C. turnover documentation.

6. Piping Cleaning and Purging
6.1 Prior to cleaning and purging piping system, the following conditions shall be met.
6.1.1 Make up the purging and cleaning flow diagram for piping system. The purging, cleaning direction and sequence shall be clearly marked on the flow diagram.
6.1.2 Pressure test of piping system has been completed and accepted.
6.1.3 All orifices, venturi tubes, nozzles, strainers, adjustable valves, flow meter shall be removed from piping system and replaced with nipple jointing.
6.1.4 All pipes or equipment that is not included in testing system for cleaning and purging shall be segregated from system.
6.1.5 System has been temporary reinforced.
6.2 The purging by water shall be done continuously, the discharge pipe shall be near the ditch or drains well, If design has not related stipulations, cleaning result can be accepted at the condition that the water quality at both the inlet and outlet of piping are the same.
6.3 When instrument air or industry air is used for air drying. If there is no water, rust, dust or any other foreign material from outlet drying shall be considered as accepted.
6.4 The OWNER representative and operations personnel at their option shall be present during drying, and cleaning of pipes. The records of cleaning and purging shall be made after purging.

7. Restoration of Piping System
7.1 After piping system has been accepted, system shall be restored immediately. All orifices, venturi tubes, nozzles, strainers adjustable valves, flow meters and retaining valves which have been removed from system for testing and purging shall be installed as per drawing. All blind boards shall be removed and all temporary gaskets shall be replaced with formal gaskets.
7.2 Pipes that are connected with dynamic equipment shall be realigned without extra load.
7.3 All temporary supports that are installed during testing shall be removed. All hangers and other brackets shall be examined and adjusted as per drawing.

8. Construction Quality Records and Inspection Reports
8.1 Construction quality records shall be made synchronously with construction and shall reflect the progression of, these records shall be managed by an appointed Q.C. clerk and audited by QC engineers and technicians.
8.2 Inspection reports shall be documented (filled out) by QC engineer to reflect the real examination contents and quality status, and approved by OWNER’s representative.
8.3 Construction quality records for blasting and painting shall be recorded accordingly as per blasting and painting procedure and insulation procedure. (Refer to PDOC-587B-PR-MEC-001 and PDOC-587-PR-MEC-002)

9. Revision Note
9.1 This procedure shall be revised if it is found to be inadequate for the purposed work upon completion of engineering/ now construction practice/ new site information or as requested by OWNER.